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Rosa canina - Dog Rose

From The Plant Encyclopedia

Dog Rose

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Rosa canina - Dog Rose

Genus Rosa - Rose

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Aden Earth Zone

9 - 14

Cultivation

  • Cultivation:
  • Light: Sun
  • Soil: Mid-Fertility
  • pH: 7
  • Moisture: Medium

Characteristics

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  • Flower:
  • Fruit/Seed:
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About

 Rosa canina (commonly known as the dog rose) is a variable scrambling rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.
It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1–5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4–6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5–2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.


Cultivation and uses

The plant is high in certain antioxidants. The fruit is noted for its high vitamin C level and is used to make syrup, tea and marmalade. It has been grown or encouraged in the wild for the production of vitamin C, from its fruit (often as rose-hip syrup), especially during conditions of scarcity or during wartime. The species has also been introduced to other temperate latitudes. During World War II in the United States Rosa canina was planted in victory gardens, and can still be found growing throughout the United States, including roadsides, and in wet, sandy areas up and down coastlines.
Forms of this plant are sometimes used as stocks for the grafting or budding of cultivated varieties. The wild plant is planted as a nurse or cover crop, or stabilising plant in land reclamation and specialised landscaping schemes.
Numerous cultivars have been named, though few are common in cultivation. The cultivar Rosa canina 'Assisiensis' is the only dog rose without prickles. The hips are used as a flavouring in Cockta, a soft drink made in Slovenia.


Canina meiosis

The dog roses, the Canina section of the genus Rosa (20-30 species and subspecies, which occur mostly in Northern and Central Europe), have an unusual kind of meiosis that is sometimes called "permanent odd polyploidy" although it can occur with even polyploidy (e.g. in tetraploids or hexaploids). Regardless of ploidy level, only seven bivalents are formed leaving the other chromosomes as univalents. Univalents are included in egg cells, but not in pollen.[1][2] Dogroses are most commonly pentaploid, i.e. five times the base number of seven chromosomes for the genus Rosa, but may be tetraploid or hexaploid as well.


Names and etymology

The botanic name is derived from the common names 'dog rose' or similar in several European languages.
It is sometimes considered that the word 'dog' has a disparaging meaning in this context, indicating 'worthless' (by comparison with cultivated garden roses) (Vedel & Lange 1960). However it also known that it was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to treat the bite of rabid dogs, hence the name "dog rose" may result from this.[3]
Other old folk names include rose briar (also spelt brier), briar rose, dogberry, sweet briar, wild briar, witches' briar, and briar hip.

  • In Turkish, its name is kuşburnu, which translates as "bird nose."
  • In Swedish, its name is stenros, which translates to "stone rose."
  • In Norwegian, its name is steinnype, which translates to "stone hip."
  • In Danish, its name is hunderose, which translates as "dog rose."
  • In Azeri, its name is itburunu, which translates as "dog nose."
  • In Russian, its name is шиповник (translit: 'shipovnik'), which translates as "thorn bearer."
  • In Bulgarian, its name is шипка (translit: 'shipka'), which translates to "thornbush".
  • In Mongolian, its name is нохойн хошуу, which translates as "dog nose."
  • In Hungarian, its name is vadrózsa, which translates as "wild rose."
  • In Polish, its name is dzika róża, which translates as "wild rose."

Invasive species

Dog rose is an invasive species in the high country of New Zealand. It was recognised as displacing native vegetation as early as 1895[4] although the Department of Conservation does not consider it to be a conservation threat.[5]

Dog rose in culture

The dog rose was the stylized rose of medieval European heraldry, and is still used today.[citation needed] It is also the county flower of Hampshire.[6]

References

^ Täckholm, Gunnar (1922) Zytologische Studien über die Gattung Rosa. Acta Horti Bergiani 7, 97-381.
^ Lim,, K.Y.; Werlemark,, G.; Matyasek,, R.; Bringloe,, J.B.; Sieber,, V.; El Mokadem,, H.; Meynet,, J.; Hemming,, J. et al. (2005). "Evolutionary implications of permanent odd polyploidy in the stable sexual, pentaploid of Rosa canina L.". Heredity 94 (5): 501–506. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800648. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p133
^ Kirk, T (1895). "The Displacement of Species in New Zealand". Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 1895 (Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand) 28. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ Owen, S. J. (1997). Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: a database. Wellington: Department of Conservation.
^ Plantlife website County Flowers page